כִּי ki "that, for" this little particle has a wide range of uses, including: "because, when, as" or even to signal the beginning of direct speech ("open quotes").

In Amos ki can most often be rendered by "because, for, so...": 3:7; 14; 4:12, 5:5, 12, 13, 17, 7:2, 5, 13; and at Amos 4:5, ki ken = "for thus..."

In 6:12 & 7:14 ki implies a contrast so "but" works well; another construction ki lo' (6:10) = a command "that not to..." = a command) although in 9:8 the same construction = "I will not..."

The construction ki 'im also has varied meanings. In Amos 5:22 it means something like "even though..." rather than just "for if..." while in 8:11 it is rather more like "but for..."

In Amos 4:2, 13, 6:11, 14 & 9:9 ki is followed by hinneh and suggests that what follows is linked to what goes before; hinneh "look!" draws attention to what follows and suggests a change of perspective or voice.

The phrase ki koh 'amar "for thus says..." (5:3, 4; 7:11) is a fairly common adaptation of the common messenger formula (occurring 65 times).